They will also apply during the transitional period of the WITHDRAWAL agreement for the UK, as most EU laws will continue to apply to the UK during this period, which expires at the end of the year. We want a close partnership in the future to address the common challenges of asylum and illegal immigration. Section 17 of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 obliges the government to negotiate an agreement with the EU allowing unaccompanied children of an asylum seeker in the EU to join family members legally residing in the UK, where it is in their best interest. This obligation applies regardless of whether we leave the EU with or without an agreement. The implementation of transfers is based on the replacement of an agreement and we are working to negotiate such an agreement as quickly as possible. The Dublin II Regulation was adopted in 2003 and replaced the Dublin Convention in all EU Member States, with the exception of Denmark, which is withdrawing the implementation of regulations in the area of freedom, security and justice.  In 2006, an agreement came into force with Denmark to extend the application of the regulation to Denmark.  A separate protocol also extended the Iceland-Norway agreement to Denmark in 2006.  On 1 March 2008, the provisions of the regulation were also extended by a treaty to third countries, Switzerland which, on 5 June 2005, voted 54.6% in favour of their ratification, and Liechtenstein on 1 April 2011.  The Dublin regime was originally established by the Dublin Convention, signed in Dublin (Ireland) on 15 June 1990 and came into force on 1 September 1997 for the first twelve signatories (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom) and on 1 January 1998 for Finland. While the agreement was only open to accession by the Member States of the European Communities, Norway and Iceland, non-member countries, reached an agreement with the EC in 2001 on the application of the provisions of the Convention on their territory.  For more information here: www.proasyl.de/hintergrund/praxishinweise-zur-aktuellen-aussetzung-von-dublin-ueberstellungen-und-ueberstellungsfristen/ application of this regulation can significantly delay the submission of claims and lead to claims never being heard. The use of detention to enforce the transfer of asylum seekers from the state where they are found to be responsible is also known as Dublin transfers, the separation of families and the refusal of an effective appeal against transfers. The Dublin system also increases pressure on the EU`s external border regions, where the majority of asylum seekers enter the EU and where states are often least able to offer assistance and protection to asylum seekers.  In the spirit of the policy proposals in the White Paper on May`s Government`s Immigration Documents, Immigration Minister Brandon Lewis said that in March Germany had not temporarily sent asylum seekers to Italy and other European countries under the Dublin system because of the coronavirus pandemic. The fact that she suspended the six-month period after which they would normally no longer be threatened with deportation to Dublin is also controversial. In a non-agreement scenario, the United Kingdom will no longer participate in Dublin III. The Immigration, Nationality and Asylum (EU Exit) Regulations 2019 will come into force on the day of departure and revoke the Dublin Agreements, although existing family reunification applications are processed.